pg-utils: PostgreSQL Utils¶
When analyzing large datasets, it can often be useful to let the database do as much of the analysis as possible. While Pandas is great at manipulating datasets that are large enough to fit on one machine, but possibly not large enough to fit into memory, concerns over performance and data security can sometimes make analysis in the database more convenient.
This package is built for use with PostgreSQL. Support for other databases might follow (but don’t hold your breath).
Wait, what? Why?!?¶
Let’s illustrate with a few examples. To begin with, making a connection is simple:
In : from pg_utils import connection, table In : conn = connection.Connection()
The environment variables
pg_database can be used to store values for the corresponding connection information. Of course, any of the username, password, hostname, or database can be overridden.
Moving on, let’s build a simple table consisting of one million rows with one column chosen randomly and another sampled from the standard normal distribution (via the Box-Muller transform).
In : from pg_utils import table In : t = table.Table.create("pg_utils_test", ...: """create table pg_utils_test as select random() as x, ...: sqrt(-2 * ln(u1))*cos(2*PI()*u2) as y ...: from( ...: select random() as u1, random() as u2 ...: from generate_series(1, 1000000) ...: )a""")
t is a metadata object. It doesn’t hold any of the actual data within the table. However, we have a limited subset of the Pandas API that works via the database. For example:
In : t.describe() Out: x y count 1000000.000000 1000000.000000 mean 0.499628 -0.000075 std_dev 0.288671 0.999630 minimum 0.000001 -4.589661 25% 0.249420 -0.672603 50% 0.499709 0.000695 75% 0.749733 0.673413 maximum 0.999999 4.867347
Note that none of those calculations are done locally. They’re all done in the database.
t.y.distplot(bins=1000) produce the following histograms (with KDEs):
Table API has significantly changed from
0.4.0. In particular, schema and connection parameters are now optional (replaced with your username and a fresh connection, respectively). This leaves the table name as the only required parameter for many of these methods. If
table_name is already qualified with a schema (eg
"foo.bar"), then pg-utils will Do The Right Thing and just set
The goals for this package are:
- Providing a simple
Connectionobject that builds easy connections to the database based off of environment variables (overridden with parameters, if specified).
- Mocking Pandas Series and DataFrame objects with metadata constructs of
Table(respectively). Columns and Tables will implement some parts of the Pandas API that do calculations in the database.
- Possibly other tools for automation of simple tasks and conveniently displaying metadata (if needed).
This package will never be:
- An object-relational mapper (ORM). The only SQL-ish operations will be those that are implemented and that mock SQL-ish bits of the Pandas API for Series and/or DataFrames.